Billfish Working Group
Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) --- North Pacific
◊ Biological Profile
Swordfish are highly migratory and have a cosmopolitan distribution in tropical, temperate, and sometimes boreal waters, across a range that exceeds 100° of latitude (approximately 60°N to 45°S ). It is the most widely distributed of all billfishes.
North Pacific swordfish are divided into two stocks. Sub-Area 1 is the Western and Central North Pacific (WCNPO) swordfish stock. Sub-Area 2 is the Eastern North Pacific (EPO) swordfish stock. Sub-Area 2 also includes waters north of the equator and south to 20°S, from 155°W and eastward.
Swordfish are apex predators that feed opportunistically. Squids and fishes are major prey items. The maximum size is off Hawaii is about 220 cm in eye-fork length (12 years old) for females and about 200 cm in eye-fork length (11 years old) for males.
◊ Fisheries for Swordfish in the North Pacific Ocean
◊ Stock Status and Conservation Information
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